Kidney transplantation is also known as renal transplantation. A kidney transplant is a surgical procedure to place a healthy kidney from a living or deceased donor into a person whose kidneys no longer function properly. If a kidney becomes unable to perform the duties for various reasons this is called end-stage renal failure or, in other words, fifth stage chronic kidney disease.
Diabetes, hypertension, chronic glomerulonephritis and polycystic kidney disease are the main causes of end-stage renal disease.
Kidney transplantation is a surgical method applied to people with end stage renal failure. People with end-stage renal disease need to have waste removed from their bloodstream via a machine (dialysis) or a kidney transplant to stay alive. Renal transplantation can also be performed after some treatments such as hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis or hemofiltration.
The person giving his/her kidney is called donor and the person receiving the kidney is called recipient. The kidney to be transplanted should not be rejected by the recipient’s immune system. The kidney to be transplanted is usually found from a family member or a person (cadaver) who has donated his/her kidney before he/she died. In the transplantation process, the left kidney of the donor is usually removed and attached to the right pelvic region of the recipient.